Ani210 week10

I believe that many people are familiar with the word Renderman, every time you see a Hollywood movie, wherever there is premium animation design, it is almost inseparable from Renderman, especially in the movie that has large investment. Technically often highlight what they resolve  as they faced production problems with Renderman. Such as   the human realistic skin in “Final Fantasy”, the water scene in “Finding Dory”,the hair used in “Stuart Little”,  etc.


So what is Renderman? RenderMan is a product that was launched by Pixar company in 19s. After several years of application, it has been increasingly favored by them. Many large animation companies have adopted it and used in their production , such as Walt Disney and Warner Pictures Corporation. The completed works that used it is everywhere now. Such as the famous world’s first three-dimensional animated film – “Toy Story”, and “Ant”, “Star Wars”, “Monster University” … …and many more.


Figure 4. Pixar’s render man

Pixar is undoubtedly one of the world’s leading animation production company, The large part of the credit of its leading position is brought by PhotoRealistic Renderman (Prman) And the selling of Prman, bring it a lot of profit as well.
The original intention of Prman is “PhotoRealistic”, which means there is a level of accuracy of the photo. If the rendering setup is setting properly, the render output of Prman will really won’t have any jagged.


Figure 5. Render man Shaders

To do a the movie, the speed is a critical factor. Prman focus on the combination of speed and precision, rendering it truly be called Nurbs seamless, speed is the fastest in many renderers.Another important factor is the relation of the film production costs and profits. If the investor spend money on rendering invisible polygons, or experiment on new technologies that is not yet mature, the next time you will find no one will make movie with you. So Prman the REYES algorithm is optimized,the mission os it is render whatever you seen. Prman will ensure that it will only rendering polygon that can be seen on the screen. And never wasting time on rendering non-meeting polygons.


Figure 6. Pixar’s Renderman

Pixar RenderMan is a standard graphic film industry integration (synthesis) software. It win its reputation through his fast, powerful, variable settings and programmable features, it is a powerful rendering tool using in film and generating image.


Celebfan. (2015, 09 08). Stuart Little Photos : Stuart Little. Retrieved summer 2016, from

Martin, C. (2013). Final Fantasy: The Spirits Within. Retrieved summer 2015, from

News, I. (2015, 03 31). Pixar’s RenderMan Software Is Now Free – IGN News. Retrieved summer 2016, from

Obretenov , C. (2015, 01). Shading with RIS in RenderMan. Retrieved summer 2016, from (n.d.). Finding Dory. Retrieved summer 2016, from

Sciretta, P. (2016, 04 11). How Unprecedented New Technology Made It Harder to Produce ‘Finding Dory’. Retrieved summer 2016, from

Wolfe, J. (2015, 08 04). Pixar Launching RenderMan Art & Science Fair at SIGGRAPH 2015. Retrieved summer 2016, from



Ani210 week9


Figure 1. Poster of Inside Out by fan

Last week, I mentioned the animation Inside Out. In the story, there are five emotion villains that live in the protagonist Riley’s brain, Each emotion requires a distinct, lively looking. Its character design, seemingly looks simple, but in reality, it contains complex and subtle effects. For example, in accordance with the requirements of director Pete Docter, each emotions, it is not really physical presence, but an energy state. So, if you look carefully, the outline of the five emotions appearance is not a solid line, but always in a boiling state with fine bubbles.

The boss of the five emotions – Joy, her body can emit light,her mood is often in the excited state, more than the light, but also  emit “Happy particle” from her skin. The production group let Joy has glow inside her body that brighter than the light from outside. So if viewers see carefully, you will find the halo is bluish; the other part of the body surface that is irradiated by other light is white color. Wherever the light source cannot reach, will appear saturated pink .


Figure7. Scene of Inside Out 

To accomplish that effect, Inside Out used the Geometry Lighting System for the first time. This new lighting program is not yet mature when the film began production. At that time, Pixar’s RenderMan software’s development group is still in a tense of this new module. Then the production team were the first to get RenderMan geometry lighting test routine. Prior to this, the rendering of the lighting on Joy, used a set of traditional software, it is especially complicated. But since applied a geometric lighting system, afterwards,only a small amount of manual tuning can handle it; even if in the entire film,  where Joy is there the scene, changed lots of times, the same set of basic settings can easily deal with it.


Figure8. Poster of Inside Out

The main purpose of every Pixar’s work is telling a good story.But this does not mean that its animation technology is going behind; actually on the contrary, in its every new project, Pixar showed advancing animation techniques in lots of detail aspects. They have the ability to complete the quality and quantity of the final results, no wonder that Pixar’s works are regarded as good model of blend of technology and art.


Comparan, R. (2015, 06 16). INSIDE OUT MOVIE POSTERS FROM AROUND THE WORLD. Retrieved summer 2016, from

Extras, F. M. (2015, 06 12). Inside Out (2015) Making of & Behind the Scenes (Part2/2). Retrieved summer 2016, from

FilmIsNow Movie Bloopers & Extras. (2015, 06 11). Inside Out (2015) Making of & Behind the Scenes (Part1/2). Retrieved summer 2016, from

Giardina, C. (2015, 12 21). Making of ‘Inside Out’: Which Emotions Didn’t Make the Cut. Retrieved summer 2016, from

GODFREY, A. (2015, 07 20). Pixar’s Pete Docter on the story (and science) of ‘Inside Out’. Retrieved summer 2016, from

JubaAj. (2015). Inside Out Not-Official Poster remake. Retrieved summer 2016, from

Pixar. (2014, 06 23). Inside Out Movie Posters. Retrieved summer 2016, from (2015, 06 01). PUBLICATIONS POST MAGAZINE 2015 JUNE 1, 2015 ANIMATION: PIXAR’S ‘INSIDE OUT’. Retrieved summer 2016, from


Ani210 week8



Figure 1. Box office of Inside out

In June 19,2015 ,Pixar released a 3D animation called Inside out,which taking a handsome almost $US 1 million at the worldwide box office. The statistic is showing in the image on the left.  However this is just one of the 14 success 3D animations that released after toy story in 1995.

You may wondering what make Pixar so successful, in fact, the most essential is its extraordinary innovation process. In most of the cases, animation studio usually bringing a group of professionals together in the specific film, once the movie finished, it will soon disbanded. But Pixar is very different, the project team is from a film after completion then redirect to the next. Pixar thereby forming a team can facing a variety of situations, in an unimaginable way of mutual trust and mutual understanding within each member in the team.


Figure 2. Pixar poster

Pixar has created a creative team comprising senior animator, storytelling  and art department. This team is responsible for providing ideas for all of Pixar’s films and then write them down. Pixar is committed to hiring talented performers who have excellent acting talent, they make stiff-looking characters become vivid, as if they have their own unique way of thinking.Pixar has always adhere to create their own stories and characters instead of copying the old fairy tale or selling books.


Figure 3. Monster poster

But also the wonderful looking of Pixar animation need to thank the advances in technology. Pixar produced the film all the audiences with a new visual experience. From the animation to the big screen, they are no longer just adhere to the traditional 2d graphic animation. In the production of “Monsters, Inc.,” In order to show the protagonist fluttering hair, the technical team developed a simulation program to render 2.3 million hair’s soft fluctuation.Pixar constantly updated their technology to make the animated screen shown great and strong visual impact, which laying a solid foundation of their success.

Pixar can be said to achieve an impossible task which is surpass Disney. However, with wonderful ideas and advanced technology, Pixar succeed!

Reference: (2016, 07). Inside Out. Retrieved summer 2016, from

Fiction, B. (2016, 06 17). The Evolution of Pixar. Retrieved summer 2016, from

Fortune, T. s. (2015, 07 14). Fortune Magazine. Retrieved summer 2016, from

Maddox, G. (2015, 02 12). From Toy Story to Monsters University: the secrets to Pixar’s success. Retrieved summer 2016, from (n.d.). James P. Sullivan. Retrieved summer 2016, from (n.d.). Pixar Animation Studios. Retrieved summer 2016, from

Verge, T. (2013, 06 23). On The Verge: inside Pixar Animation Studios with Monsters University  . Retrieved summer 2016, from


Ani210 week 7


Figure 1. The animator’s survival kit

Last week I talked about two of the elements to determine the character walking animation, which is timing and weight. Also, this trimester our lecture taught us about the   secondary action,which is an action that results directly from another action. . So today i am going to continues talking about the law of motion used in animation, specially in walk cycle.


Figure 2. Foot walking frames

The next key element in walk cycle is heel and foot movements. The heel of feet is the leading action, but the foot is secondary, it follows heels’ moving; heel play the leading role,the foot itself is going forward, and controlled by the heel. In 3D character animation production, we should pay attention to the details of the heel and sole of the foot. The heel action will directly affect the smooth and softness of the entire walking motion. Next, about the arm movements. In walking, the swinging arm is to balance the strength of walking, arm action is actually a pendulum action. In general, most actions are following an arc movement, and a course of action that is an arc. The arc of the swinging arm is based on the size of the personality of a character.


Finally, the most efficient key to let the action become interesting is counteraction. An animated character, in addition to the parts of the body movements, there are movements such as the stomach, buttocks, chest, hair, clothes and other parts, and these additional actions is counteraction. For example, a big fat man is walking, when his body is going down, his belly is going upward. The rule of the counteraction is when the body is going upward, the drape of the shirt, hair, and other soft part are going downward; likewise, the movement of the buttocks, chest and upper and hair is usually in the opposite direction with the body movement.

Figure 7. Animation

The interest and the exaggeration of the actions are mostly depends on the secondary action and counteraction, while the character’s personality traits can also be well represented in these elements. Thus, just increasing the dynamic action can not get the same amazing effect like fat, clothes, hair, these extra parts. And same with arm action, these counter-movements in three-dimensional animation production, also need to distinguish the time occurrence. There is no action happens in simultaneous; even the buttocks and chest has distinction on time as well.

Figure 8. Animation


AlanBeckerTutorials . (2015, 03 12). 9. Timing – 12 Principles of Animation. Retrieved summer 2016, from

Animation Tutorials. (2008, 12 17). EXAGGERATION: 2D Animation principle. Retrieved 2016, from

Chowns, M. (2016, 06 14). Martin Chowns Bachelor of 3D Art & Animation. Retrieved summer 2016, from

CLOYTOONS. (2015, 12 13). Animation Research: Reference Videos. Retrieved summer 2016, from

Stefano, R. A. (n.d.). The Principles of Animation. Retrieved summer 2016, from

动画学术趴 . (2015, 09 20). 画运动规律与角色表演. Retrieved summer 2016, from http://www.wtoutiao.com


Ani210 week6

Today, I am going to talk about the law of motion used in animation, because it is a really giant topic, I will only talk about part of its content this time. As computer animation become a mainstream form of animation today, the technology continues to bring a lot of convenience for the production of animation . But regardless of what form of animation, the law of motion is fundamental; if a work does not have a perfect motion, even if there is a beautiful character, a very beautiful scenes, or with a very luxury special effects, it can not be called as a good animation.

Law of motion animation is the basic, but the walking cycle is the basic of master law of motion. There are no two people has exactly the same walk, everyone’s walking way is different; just like sometimes you can easily recognize your friends on the road, because each person is unique gait, a small detail will change the whole posture.

First, the movement of walking is to determine the rhythm and weight. Setting the rhythm, it is the first step in a three-dimensional animation production. Apparently, the first ting to do is to determine what kind of way the role is in walking, it is in senile, walking light, tired or crept. Every walk has different rhythm. The timing of natural normal walking is universally applied in 12 frames per second a step. but with different roles, their walking rhythm are not the same, therefore, the easiest way is to calculate the walking tempo by using the stopwatch to make their own action of walking, which is also the easy way of calculating other animation action tempo.


Figure 6. walking keyframes

First to make a start posture, which is shown in above image, frame 1 and 13 that contact the line. The actions 4,7,10 is the keyframes of where weight happens. when in the lowered position which is frame 4, the legs bent, and body’s central part drop, it creates a sense of weight. Thus, in a normal real walk, the weight on the decline as soon as the foot get in contact with the ground just one step further. but in the interim position, which is frame 7, the weight rises.

In the sum,the timing and the weight are part of the key elements of making the walking cycle. and for three-dimensional computer animation artist, only combining the good law of motion with the computer technology can make a good animation.


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Daniel. (n.d.). WALK CYCLE. Retrieved summer 2016, from

Masters, M. (2014). Character Animation Fundamentals: Timing and Spacing. Retrieved summer 2016, from

Ryan, M. (2016, 03 12). Behind the Animation: III. Retrieved summer 2016, from

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